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18. 主语+pretend+不定式/that从句用 此句型意为“

简介: 18. 主语+pretend+不定式/that从句用 此句型意为“假装…

英语中的常见句型归纳一 it引导的句型1. It happens that... 意为“碰巧…

”例 It happened that he was out when I got there. 当我到那儿时,碰巧他不在。

2. It seems that... 意为“似乎…

”例 It seemed that he had been to Beijing before. 好像他以前去过北京。

3. It is/was+被强调的部分+that(who)+其他(该句型为强调句型)用 当被强调部分指人时,既可以用that,也可以用who引导从句;当被强调部分是物时,只能用that引导从句。

例 It wasn’t until he came back that I went to bed. 直到他回来我才睡觉。

It was because he was ill that he didn’t come to school today. 因为他生病了,今天才没有来上学。

It is Tom who/that told me about the news. 是汤姆告诉了我这个消息。

4. It is time that+从句主语+should do/did+其他,意为“该是…

该句型中的time前还可以有修饰语high, about等,即It is high time that...或It is about time that...例 It is high time that we went home. 我们该回家了。

5. It is/was said/reported+that从句,意为“据说/据报道…

”例 It was said that he had read this novel. 据说他读过这部小说。

6. It is impossible/necessary/strange+that从句用 从句中的谓语用should+do的形式时,是一种虚拟语气,其中should可以省略。

例 It is strange that he should he failed in this exam. 真奇怪,他这次考试竟没有及格。

7. It is+a pity/a shame+that 从句用 从句中的谓语动词用should do或should he done的形式,其中should可以省略。

例 He didn’t come back until the film ended. It was a pity that he should he missed this film. 他直到电影结束才回来。

8. It is suggested/ordered/commanded+that 从句用 表建议/命令时从句的谓语动词用should do,但should可以省略。

例 It is suggested that the meeting should be put off. 有人建议推迟会议。

9. It is/was+表示地点的名词+where+从句用 注意本句不是强调句型,而是以where引导的定语从句。

例 It was this house where I was born. 这是我出生的房子。

请比较:It was in this house that I was born. 我就是在这所房子里出生的。

)10. It is/was+表示时间的名词+when+从句用 注意本句不是强调句型,而是以when引导的定语从句。

例 It was a winter afternoon when we left for London. 我们前往伦敦是在一个冬天的下午。

11. It is well-known that从句例 It is well-known that she is a learned woman. 众所周知,她是个知识渊博的女人。

12. It is+时间段+since+主语+did例 It is five years since he left here. 他已经离开这儿五年了。

13. It is+时间段+before+主语+谓语用 before引导的是时间状语从句。

例 It will be three hours before he comes back. 三个小时之后他才能回来。

14. It is+形容词+for+sb.+to do sth.例 It is impossible for me to finish this work before tomorrow. 明天之前完成此项工作对我来说是不可能的。

15. It is+(心理品质方面的)形容词+of+sb.+to do sth.例 It is kind of you to help me.=You are kind to help me. 你真好,给我了帮助。

16. It sounds/looks+形容词,意为“听/看起来像…

”例 It sounds like a dog bang right here. 听上去好像有狗就在这儿叫。

17. It looks as if... 意为“看起来…

”例 It looks as if it is going to snow. 天看上去要下雪了。

18. It takes sb.+时间+to do sth.例 It took them three years to build this road. 他们用了三年时间修完了这条路。

拓 be there+主语+其他?

2. There be句型与情态动词连用例 There must be something wrong here. 这里一定是出了什么错了。

3. There be likely to be+其他例 There are likely to be more difficulties than they he been prepared for. 事情可能比他们预想的还要难。

4. There happens to be例 There happened to be nobody in the room. 碰巧没人在房间。

There happened to be a policeman at the corner, so I asked him the way. 恰好拐角处有一位,我就向他问路了。

5. There seems (to be)例 There doesn’t seem to be much hope of our beating that team. 我们打败那个队的希望似乎不大。

6. There be no use/good+doing sth.例 There is no use advising him to give up smoking. 劝他戒烟没有用。

There is no good discussing the matter with him. 同他商量这件事情没有用。

7. There be nothing to do...例 There is nothing to be done now. 现在什么也做不了。

There is nothing to be worr about him. 没有必要为他担心。

8. There be sth. wrong with...例 There is something wrong with my stomach so I can’t run any more. 我肚子疼,所以不能再跑步了。

I was late because there was something wrong with my watch.我迟到是因为我的手表出毛病了。

9. There is no time to do sth.例 There’s no time for me to play now. 现在我没有时间玩。

EXERCISE01. —Mum, I’m hungry. ______ no milk in the fridge.—Oh, I’ll go and buy some at once.A. There isB. It isC. There areD. There was02. Look! ______ some juice in the glass.A. There isB. There areC. There heD. There has03. There ______ some flowers on the teacher’s desk just now, but now there ______ nothing on it.A. he; hasB. were; wasC. were; isD. has; has04. Did, there ______ a dictionary and some books on your desk. Please put them away.A. isB. areC. heD. was05. ______ something wrong with my bike. Can I use yours?A. It isB. It wasC. There isD. There was06. There ______ many students on the playground at the moment.A. isB. areC. wasD. he07. There ______ a knife and fork on the table.A. seems to beB. seem to beC. is seeming to beD. are08. —There ______ a football match on TV this evening.—Yeah, that’s great.A. is going to beB. are going to beC. will heD. was09. —Why are you walking so quickly, Edward?—There ______ a talent show in ten minutes.A. will heB. will beC. is going to heD. are going to be10. —There ______ a concert this evening.—Yeah. Exciting news!A. are going to beB. is going to beC. is going to heD. will he01-05 AACAC 06-10 BAABB三 倒装句1. 以here, there, now, then等地点或时间副词开头的句子,谓语动词是be, come, go, remain等,且主语又是名词时,需使用全部倒装例 Here comes the bus! 公交车来了。

There goes the bell. 铃声响了。

为了使句子更生动,可将这些副词提前到句首,这时用全部倒装例 Up went the rocket. 火箭升天了。

3. 将表示地点的介词短语放在句首进行强调时,需使用全部倒装例 From the window came the sound of music. 窗外传来了音乐声。

4. 主系表结构中,当句子主语部分较长,或为了强调句子的表语时,常使用全部倒装。

句子的结构为“表语+系动词+主语”例 Gone are the days when we had nothing to eat. 我们食不果腹的日子一去不复返了。

5. if虚拟条件状语从句中,如果将连词if省略,需用部分倒装例 Were I you, I would go there. 如果我是你的话,我就去那里。

Had he come earlier, he would he met her. 要是他早点来的话,他就会见到她了。

Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的位置,你也会这样做的。

6. as引导的让步状语从句的倒装  例 Hard as you try, you will not succeed. 虽然你很努力,但你不会成功。

Wait as you may, he will not see you. 尽管你等着,他也不会见你。

Child as he is, he can tell right from wrong. 尽管他是个孩子,他也能明辨是非。

7. 具有(半)否定意义的词或短语位于句首时,用部分倒装。

Never had I heard or seen such a thing. 我从没有听说过或见过这样的东西。

Nowhere will you find better roses than these. 你在哪里都找不到比这更好的玫瑰花。

8. so... that... 结构中,有时要强调so所修饰的形容词或副词,常将so连同它所修饰的形容词或副词一起提前放在句首例 So bright was the moon that people can see the road clearly. 月亮如此明亮,人们可以很清楚地看到马路。

9. only引导的倒装句例 Only by this means can I do this work well. 只有用这种方式我才能做好此项工作。

Only because he was ill did he not come to school. 只因为他病了,才没有来上学。

Only then did I realize that I had been wrong. 直到那时,我才认识到我错了。

10. “so+be/助动词/情态动词+主语”;“neither/nor+be/助动词/情态动词+主语”用 前面陈述的肯定情况也适于另一人(物)时,常用到这种倒装结构,即“so+be/助动词/情态动词+主语”,表示“另一人(物)也如此。

例如:Tom failed to work out the problem, and so did I. 汤姆没能解决问题,我也没有。

She seldom goes to the cinema; neither do I. 她很少去看电影,我也一样。

—So it is. 的确如此。

EXERCISE01. Only when you he obtained sufficient data ______ come to a sound conclusion.A. can youB. you canC. would youD. you would02. ______ that this region was so rich in natural resources.A. Little he knewB. Little did he knowC. Little he did knowD. Little he had known03. ______ as he is, he plays piano very well.A. A childB. ChildC. ChildrenD. The child04. Not until I shouted at the top of my voice ______ his head.A. that he turnedB. did he turnC. he didn’t turnD. he had turned05. ______ received law degrees as today.A. Never so women heB. The women aren’t everC. Women who he neverD. Never he so many women06. ______ right now, she would get there on Sunday.A. Would she leeB. If she leesC. Were she to leeD. If she had left07. —I he never been to Hawaii. What about Mike?—______.A. So has heB. So he doesC. Neither he hasD. Neither has he08. —It’s snowing so heily! I prefer to stay at home and read a novel.—______. I hate going out on such a cold day.A. So I doB. So do IC. Neither do I.D. Nor do I09. Only when the work is done ______ be able to go back home.A. you heB. you willC. will youD. he you10. —Jack did a good job in the show today.—______. His performance impressed me.A. So he didB. So do IC. So I amD. So he does01-05 ABBBD 06-10 CDBCA四 反义疑问句1. 反义疑问句的基本构成及答语用 基本构成:陈述句+,+助动词/情态动词+代词?

例 You dislike adventurous sports, don’t you? 你不喜欢冒险运动,是不是?

No, I don’t. 是的,我不喜欢。

/Yes, I do. 不,我喜欢。

Sophia is not good at playing the violin, is she? 索菲亚不擅长拉小提琴,是不是?No, she isn’t. 是的,她不擅长。

/Yes, she is. 不,她擅长。

2. 祈使句的反义疑问句1 在肯定的祈使句后可加上will you? would you? won’t you? can you? could you? can’t you?等,从而使语气更加委婉例 Come in and sit down, won’t you? 进来坐一坐,好不好?

注 在肯定的祈使句后,以上各种形式皆可选择,但在否定的祈使句后只能用will you? 例如:Don’t be careless, will you? 别粗心大意,好吗?

2 以Let us/me开头的祈使句,反义疑问句需加will you?或won’t you? 而Let’s开头的祈使句,反义疑问句加shall we? 或shan’t we? 从而使语气变得更加缓和例 Let us do it for you, will you? 让我们帮你做,好吗?

3. 陈述句部分如果含有否定意义的词时(如never, seldom, hardly, few, little, no one, nobody, nothing, neither, none等),反义疑问部分必须用肯定形式。

例 You he never been to Beijing, he you? 你从来没去过北京,对吗?

No one will believe you, will they/he? 没人会相信你,不是吗?

注 在含有dislike, unimportant等以否定前缀构成的词的反义疑问句中,这些词仍按肯定词对待。

例如:This is an unimportant question, isn’t it? 这是个无足轻重的问题,是吧?

4. There be和That/This be 结构中的反义疑问句用 陈述部分是there be结构时,反义疑问部分用be there结构;陈述部分是That/This be结构时,反义疑问句部分用it代替that或this。

例 There are some students playing on the playground, aren’t there? 操场上有些学生在玩耍,不是吗?

That’s a good idea, isn’t it? 这是个好主意,不是吗?

5. 不定代词作主语时的反义疑问句用 陈述句部分如果有everything, nothing等表示事物的不定代词作主语时,反义疑问部分的主语用it;陈述部分若为everyone, someone, anyone, no one等不定代词作主语时,其反义疑问句部分的主语既可用he,也可用they。

例 Nothing has been said at the meeting, has it? 会上什么也没说,是不是?

Everything goes well, doesn’t it? 一切进展顺利,是吗?

6. 否定前移的反义疑问句用 陈述部分是含有宾语从句的复合句时,反义疑问部分中的动词和主语应和主句中的动词和主语保持一致。

例 He never thought I would come, did he? 他从没想到我会来,不是吗?

拓 否定前移的反义疑问句:如果陈述部分是“I don’t think (believe, guess, consider, feel, find, suppose等)+宾语从句”时,反义疑问部分中的动词和主语应和宾语从句的主语保持一致,并且要用肯定形式。

I don’t think that he has done that, has he? 我认为他没有做那个,不是吗?

What beautiful weather we he! 天气真好!2. how引导的感叹句1 How+形容词或副词(主语+谓语)!

例 How he worked! 他多么肯干啊!How I missed you! 我多么想念你啊!How he wished for a drink! 他多希望能喝点东西!3. 其他形式的感叹句用 感叹句除用what和how引出外,还有其他许多形式,如可用陈述句、疑问句、祈使句等,有时甚至一个单词或一个短语也可用作感叹句。

陈述句用作感叹句时,句中通常有so, such, really等加强语气的词语。

1. Do型,即:动词原形(+宾语)+其他成分例 Come earlier next time. 下次早点来。

Don’t forget me! 不要忘记我!Don’t be late for school! 上学不要迟到!2. Be型,即:Be+表语(名词或形容词)+其他成分例 Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子!Be quiet!

3. Let型,即:Let+宾语+动词原形+其他成分例 Let me help you. 让我来帮你。

Let me show you how to do it. 我来告诉你怎样做。

例如:Don’t let him go./Let him not go. 别让他走。

4. 以no开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句例 No smoking! 禁止吸烟!No fishing! 禁止钓鱼!5. never+动词原形+其他例 Never tell a lie!

6. 祈使句+and/or+简单句例 Work hard and you will succeed. 努力学习,你会成功的。

Don’t stay up late, or you will feel sleepy in class. 不要熬夜,不然你课上会很困的。

A. DoB. NeverC. NotD. No08. ______ call me Wang Wang! It’s my dog’s name.A. NotB. NoC. Don’tD. Do09. —It’s late, Teresa. ______ earlier next time and you’ll he enough time to he breakfast.—OK, Mum.A. Get upB. Getting upC. To get upD. Got up10. —______ up, Anna. It’s seven thirty.—One more minute, Mum.A. GetB. GetsC. GettingD. Got01-05 BDAAA 06-10 CBCAA七 表达意愿和建议的句型1. 表达自己看法的句型1 I think/believe/suppose/expect句型例 I think we can he a picnic if the weather is fine tomorrow. 我觉得咱们明天可以去野餐,如果天气好的话。

I believe you will succeed if you work hard. 我相信你如果努力的话,一定会成功。

拓 当think, believe, suppose, expect等动词的主语为第一人称,且本身为一般现在时态时,其后的宾语从句的否定词通常转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。

I don’t believe you need to worry about it. 我认为你不必为此而担忧。

I don’t think you need to take it too seriously. 我想你不必对此过于认真。

如:I hope it doesn’t rain. 我希望不要下雨。

I hope you don’t mind my saying it. 我希望你别介意我说这些话。

2 I’m afraid that... 意为“恐怕…

”例 I’m afraid I’m late. 恐怕我迟到了。

3 I (don’t) think it is+形容词+to do sth. 意为“我认为做某事是(不)…

”用 该句型很多时候会转化为I (don’t) think it+形容词+to do sth.。

例 I think it is good for you to take exercise in the morning. 我认为晨起锻炼对你有好处。

I don’t think it wise to give up this plan. 我认为放弃这项计划是不明智的。

4 I (don’t) feel like doing sth. 意为“我(不)想做某事。

”例 I don’t feel like doing anything today. 今天我什么也不想做。

5 I hope that...意为“我希望…

”例 I hope that you can go to the cinema with us. 我希望你能同我们一起去看电影。

6 I’d/We’d like to do sth. 意为“我/我们想要做某事。

”例 I’d like to see a film with you tonight. 今晚我想跟你一起去看电影。

2. 表达建议的句型1 Would you like/love (to do) sth.? 意为“你想要(做)某事吗?

”例 —Would you like to go to the cinema with me? 你愿意和我去电影院看电影吗?

—Yes, I’d like/love to. 是的,我愿意。

—I’d love/like to, but I he to... 我很想去,但我不得不…

2 Shall I/we do sth.? 意为“我(们)做某事好吗?

3 Let’s do sth. 意为“咱们做某事吧!

”用 该句型后常加附加问句“shall we?”,使语气更加委婉。

4 you’d better (not) do sth. 意为“你最好(不要)做某事。

”例 You’d better go to hospital at once. 你最好现在就去医院。

5 Why not do sth.? 意为“为什么不做某事呢?

”用 该句型是Why don’t you/we do sth.?的省略式,表示向对方提出一种建议或询问某种原因,有时,暗含有责备对方的意思。

6 What/How about (doing) sth.? 意为“做…

7 What do you think of...? 意为“你认为…

8 Do you mind...?/Would you mind...? 意为“你介意…

9 Will you please do sth.? 意为“请你做某事,好吗?”例 Will you please come to my home, Mary? 玛丽,你来我家好吗?

EXERCISE01. —______ do think of the film?—Very interesting.A. WhatB. WhoC. HowD. Why02. —What do you think of soap operas?—______. But my mother likes them.A. I like themB. I enjoy themC. I can’t stand themD. I don’t agree03. I don’t think ______ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.A. thisB. thatC. itsD. it04. —Can I park my car here, sir?—______. You see, there’s much traffic here.A. Never mindB. You’d better notC. Of course notD. Yes, please.05. —Would you like to go for a bike ride on Sunday afternoon?—______. I hen’t been outdoors these days. I can’t wait!A. Sorry, I can’tB. Sure, I’d love toC. Not at allD. Forget it06. —Would you mind not throwing waste here?—______.A. Sorry, I won’t do it againB. Sure, I’d love to.C. Yes, of course.D. No, thanks.07. —Would you like some noodles?—______. I am not hungry now.A. You are welcomeB. Yes, pleaseC. No, thanksD. Here you are08. —It’s a nice day, isn’t it?—Yes. ______ going hiking and relaxing ourselves?A. Why notB. Why don’tC. What aboutD. How is09. —Would you like some eggs, Judy?—______. I don’t like them at all.A. I’m not sureB. All rightC. No, thanksD. It didn’t10. —It’s sunny today. Why not he a picnic outside?—______! Let’s ask the twins to join us.A. Sounds greatB. Best wishesC. Good luckD. Well done01-05 ACDBB 06-10 ACCCA八 表示比较的句型1. 同级比较句型1 as...as...句型用 第一个as为副词,其后通常接形容词或副词的原级,第二个as可用作介词(后接名词或代词)或连词(后接从句等)。

否定句中可以用not so/as...as...。

常用的表达结构有: as+形容词/副词+as as+形容词+a/an+可数名词+as as many/few+复数名词+as as much/little+不可数名词+as例 He is as handsome as his brother (is). 他和他哥哥一样英俊。

I hen’t got as much money as he thought. 我不像他想象的有那么多钱。

I ge him as much as he could eat. 他能吃多少,我就给了他多少。

拓 as...as...结构中可使用以下修饰语:(not) nearly, almost, just, nothing like, exactly, not quite等,并且这些修饰语必须置于第一个as之前,而不能置于其后。

2 ...times as...as... 意为“…

的几倍”用 “两倍”用twice,三倍以上常用“具体数字+ times”。

例 This line is four times as long as that one. 这条线是那条线的四倍长。

She studies three times as hard as I. 她用功的程度是我的三倍。

He earns twice as much as he used to. 他现在赚的钱是过去的两倍多。

This room is three times as large as that one. 这个房间是那个房间的三倍大。

拓 该句型还可以表示为: 主语+be+the size/length/width/height+of+被比较的对象Our building is twice the height of yours. 我们的大楼是你们的大楼的两倍高。

3 the same...as...表示“同一类”;the same...that... 表示“同一个”用 这里as和that都是关系代词,引出的都是定语从句。

例 He used the same book as you do. 他使用的书和你的相同。

This is the same watch as I lost. 这块手表和我遗失的那块同款。

This is the same watch that I lost. 这块手表就是我丢的那一块。

2. 表示比较级句1 形容词或副词的比较级+than例 She goes to school earlier than other students. 她比其他同学去学校早。

You are brighter than he (is). 你比他聪明。

2 主语+be+百分数/倍数+形容词比较级+than+被比较的对象例 This city is twice larger than ours. 这个城市比我们城市大两倍。

It is ten times louder than another. 它比另外一个的声音大十倍。

3 The+形容词比较级...,the+形容词比较级...例 The sooner you do it, the better it will be. 做得越早越好。

The more you beat iron, the harder it grows. 铁不炼不成钢,玉不琢不成器。

4 more and more结构例 The noise of traffic grows louder and louder. 交通的噪音变得愈来愈大。

5 one of the+最高级例 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China. 黄河是中国最长的河流之一。

拓 no more than...意为“仅仅…

”;no less than...意为“不少于…

之多”,例如:It is no more than ten minutes’ walk from the station. 由车站走到这里只有十分钟的路程。

6 主语+be+the+形容词比较级+of/between...例 He is the taller of the two. 他是两人之中较高的那个。

3. 表示最高级的句型1 主语+be+the+形容词或副词最高级例 Spring is the best season of the year. 春天是一年中最好的季节。

2 one of+the+形容词或副词最高级例 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China. 黄河是中国最长的河之一。

He is one of the tallest boys in the class. 他是班里最高的孩子之一。

3 nothing is+比较级+than... 意为“没有比…

的了”例 Nothing is more valuable than time, but nothing is less valued than time.没有比时间更贵重的东西,但也没有比它更受轻视的东西。

No place is better than one’s home. 没有任何地方比得上自己的家。

例 ...nothing more than... 意为“只不过…

”,例如:It is nothing more than a made-up story. 它只不过是杜撰的故事而已。

4 “比较级+than any other+单数名词”;“比较级+than+all the others”;“比较级+than any of + the others”例 She is better than any other student in her class. 她是她们班里最好的学生。

Russia is larger than any other couy in the world. 俄罗斯是世界上最大的国家。

Mary is taller than anyone else in the class. 玛丽比班级里其他所有的学生的个子都高。

4. 其他比较句型1 prefer A to B,意为“比起A,更喜欢B;宁愿A而不愿意B”用 在本句型中,A与B是平行结构,可以是名词、代词,也可以都是动名词。

例 They prefer trains to buses. 他们愿意坐火车而不愿坐汽车。

I prefer staying at home to going out. 我宁愿待在家里,也不愿意出去。

2 prefer+不定式+rather than+不定式,意为“宁愿…

”用 本句型中,第一个不定式前面要加to,第二个不定式前面以不加to居多;rather than也可以置于句首。

例 He preferred to die rather than become a traitor. 他宁死也不做叛徒。

3 would rather...than... 意为“宁愿…

”例 She’d rather die than lose the children. 她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们。

The children would rather walk there than take a bus. 孩子们宁愿步行去那里,也不愿乘坐公共汽车。

EXERCISE01. —English isn’t as ______ as Chinese.—Maybe, perhaps it’s just because Chinese is your native language.A. easyB. easilyC. easierD. easiest02. We he two ears and one mouth so that we can listen ______ we speak.A. as twice much asB. twice as much asC. as much as twiceD. as much twice as03. China is larger than ______ in Africa.A. the other couiesB. any couyC. any of the other couiesD. any other couy04. —I’d like a cup of black coffee. What about you, Maggie?—I prefer coffee ______ sugar.A. thanB. forC. withD. to05. Mr. Smith thinks running is ______ than gymnastics.A. very popularB. more popularC. most popularD. the most popular06. —Many boy students think math is ______ English.—I agree. I’m weak in English.A. much difficult thanB. so difficult asC. less difficult thanD. more difficult than07. Mr. Li asks us to remember that ______ careful we are, ______ mistakes we will make.A. the more, the fewerB. the fewer, the moreC. the more, the moreD. the less, the fewer08. Is this kind of pets ______ a pet dog these days?A. as trendy asB. more trendier thanC. much trendy thanD. not so trendier as09. The more careful you are, the ______ mistakes you will make.A. fewB. fewerC. fewestD. little10. It’s summer now. The weather is getting ______.A. higher and higherB. lower and lowerC. hotter and hotterD. colder and colder01-05 ABBCB 06-10 CAABC九 if 引导的从句1. if 引导的宾语从句用 在if引导的宾语从句中,if的含义是“是否”。

if引导的宾语从句,常放在动词ask, see, say, know和find out等后面。

例 Nobody knows if it will rain tomorrow. 没有人知道明天是否下雨。

I don’t know if/whether he will come here today. 我不知道他今天是否会来。

Tom asked if/whether I had read the book. 汤姆问我是否看过这本书。

如:I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。

②在whether...or not 的固定搭配中,只能用whether,不能用if。

如:I want to know whether it’s good news or not. 我想知道这是否是好消息。

2. if 引导的条件状语从句(真实条件句)用 在if引导的条件状语从句中,表示在某种条件下很可能发生时,就是真实条件句,通常从句用一般现在时,主句用将来时态或者情态动词+动词原形或者祈使句的形式。

1 if从句用一般现在时,主句用一般将来时例 If he runs he’ll get there in time. 如果他跑的话,他就会及时赶到那儿。

The cat will scratch you if you pull its tail. 如果你拉这只猫的尾巴,它就会抓你。

2 if从句用一般现在时,主句用may/might/can+动词原形例 If the fog gets thicker the plane may/might be diverted. 如果雾再大一些,飞机可能就会改在别的机场降落。

If it stops snowing we can go out. 如果雪停了,我们就可以出去。

3 if从句用一般现在时,主句用must/should+动词原形例 If you want to lose weight you must/should eat less bread. 如果你想减肥,就必须/应该少吃面包。

4 if从句用一般现在时,主句用一般现在时例 If you heat ice it turns to water.(也可用will turn)如果你给冰加热,它就会化成水。

5 if从句用现在进行时,主句用一般将来时例 If you are looking for Peter you’ll find him upstairs. 如果你是在找彼得,上楼就会找到他。

6 if从句用现在完成时,主句用一般将来时例 If you he finished dinner I’ll ask the waiter for the bill. 如果你吃完了,我就叫服务生来结账。

3. If引导的条件状语从句(虚拟条件句)用 表示的内容与现在事实相反,if从句用一般过去时,主句用“would/should/could/might+动词原形”;表示与过去事实相反,if从句用had+动词的过去分词,主句用would/should/could/might+he+动词的过去分词;表示对将来情况的主观推测,if从句用①should+动词原形②were to+动词原形,主句用would/should/could/might+动词原形。

例 If he should come here tomorrow, I would talk to him. 如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。

If I had taken his advice, I shouldn’t/wouldn’t/couldn’t he made such a mistake. 如果我按照他的建议去做,我一定不会(不可能)犯这样的错误。

If it should rain, the crops would/could/might be sed. 假如下雨,庄稼就一定(有可能)会得救。

拓 ①主句与从句时间不一致的用法If I had attended the meeting yesterday, I would know what happened now. 如果我参加了昨天的会议,现在我就知道发生什么事了。

②省略if把had, should, were提前至句首,形成倒装结构Had it not been for him, I would be in hospital now. 要不是他,我现在就在医院里了。

Should anyone call, tell him that I’m not in. 有人打电话的话,告诉他我不在。

Were it left to me to decide, I would choose to go to college. 如果让我决定,我会选择去上大学。

EXERCISE01. If I he enough money, I ______ a school bus to help the poor children go to school.A. buyB. boughtC. will buyD. he bought02. What would happen if he ______ back home?A. goB. goesC. wentD. going03. If I ______ you, I would take an umbrella.A. amB. wereC. isD. be04. If more trees ______ planted, our city will be more beautiful.A. wereB. areC. will beD. be05. If our government ______ pay attention to the safety of food, our health ______ in danger.A. isn’t; isB. doesn’t; will beC. won’t; isD. isn’t; will be06. I won’t watch basketball matches ______ James is playing. He pays much attention to teamwork.A. unlessB. ifC. althoughD. since07. If you ______ an English teacher, how ______ you teach your students English?A. were; willB. were; wouldC. are; didD. are; would08. I apologize if I ______ you, but I assure you it was unintentional.A. offendB. had offendedC. should he offendedD. might he offended09. If you hadn’t taken such a long time to get dressed, we’d ______ there by now.A. beB. circlesC. is circlingD. be circling10. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so it seems as if the sun ______ round the earth.A. were circlingB. circlesC. is circlingD. be circling01-05 CCBBB 06-10 ABBAA十 其他句型1. hear sb. do sth. /hear sb. doing sth.用 hear sb. do sth. 表示“听到某人做某事”,强调“听到”某人“做某事”的整个过程或结果;hear sb. doing sth. 表示“听到某人正在做某事”,强调听到某人当时“正在”做某事的动作。

例 I heard him sing yesterday. 昨天我听见他唱歌了。

拓 其他常见的感官动词(feel, listen to, see, watch等)也适用于这一句型,如:We often see the girl dance. 我们经常看见这个女孩跳舞。

I saw him reading at this time last night. 昨天这个时候,我看见他在读书。

2. 含有使役动词he, let, make的句型用 使役动词常用的结构为:he/let/make+名词/代词+不带to的不定式,表示“使/让某人做某事”。

(he, let, make的宾语和充当宾补的不定式之间为主动关系,即“宾语”发出的“不定式”的动作)例 The teacher made/had John get a book in the office. 老师让约翰去办公室拿一本书。

注 get sb. to do sth. 也表达“让某人做某事”这一含义,在get这一结构中不定式to do sth.中的to不可省略。

拓 he/get sth. done意为“让/使某事被做”,即“请某人做某事”,充当he/get宾语的sth.与过去分词done之间构成被动关系,即“被做”。

5. too+形容词+(for sb.)+to do 太…

例 The basket is too hey for me to carry. 这篮子太重,我拿不动。

This TV is too expensive for us to buy. 这台电视机对我们来说太贵了,买不起。

拓 so...that... 意为“如此…

The basket is so hey that I can’t carry it. 这篮子太重,我拿不动。

6. doubt+whether+从句例 I doubt whether he can come this afternoon. 我不确定他下午是否能来。

拓 afford to do sth.We can’t afford to go abroad this summer. 今年夏天我们没有足够的钱出国。

8. can’t help doing sth. 忍不住做某事例 Whenever I hear the story, I cannot help crying. 每次我听到这个故事,就忍不住要哭。

9. can’t wait to do sth. 迫不及待做某事例 I can’t wait to meet him next week. 我迫不及待想下周见他。

10. not do sth. any more 不再做例 He doesn’t live here any more. 他不再在这里住了。

拓 no longer, not any longerHe no longer lives here.=He doesn’t live here any longer. 他不在这儿居住了。

12. be used to+n./doing sth. 习惯于(做)某事例 He is used to sitting up late. 他习惯于熬夜。

拓 sb. used to do sth.某人过去常常做某事We used to hear the train whistle at night. 过去我们常会在晚上听火车的汽笛声。

15. make sure+that从句确保,务必,一定要…

例 Make sure that you put down every word she says. 务必记下她说的每一个字。

16. What’s wrong with...? …

例 What’s wrong with you? 你怎么了?

拓 与其类似的句型还有:What’s the matter with...? / What’s the trouble with...?某事怎么了?

17. What if+主语+动词?

18. 主语+pretend+不定式/that从句用 此句型意为“假装…

例 He was pretending to climb a mountain. 他那时假装正在爬山。

He pretended to be a good man. 他假装是个好人。

19. When it comes to+动名词/名词用 此句型意为“一谈到…

例 When it comes to making friends, you cannot be too careful. 一谈到交朋友,你再怎么小心也不为过。

When it came to the summer vacation, we all became excited. 一谈到暑假,我们大家都变兴奋了。

20. ...one...the others...one/some...the others...用 此句型意为“一个/另一些…

例 We he 30 students in our class; one passed the exam, and the others all failed. 我们班上有三十位学生,只有一位通过了考试,其余都不及格。

Some of the boys were late, but all the others were in time for the meeting. 男生中,有一些人迟到了,但其余的人都及时赶上开会。

Society is made up of a variety of people; some are good, others (are) bad, and still others (are) in between. 社会是由形形色色的人组成的,有些人很好,有些人很坏,也有些人介乎两者之间。

21. 主语+动词+特殊疑问词+to do 结构用 此结构中,特殊疑问词部分包括疑问代词who, whom, what, which和whose以及疑问副词when, where和how。

例 I don’t know what to do next. 我不知道接下来该怎么办。

22. ask/tell sb. (not) to do sth. 告诉某人(不要)做某事例 The boss asked me to be earlier next time. 老板让我下次早一点。

I will tell him not to be late for the meeting. 我会告诉他开会不要迟到。

23. How is the weather...? /What’s the weather like...? …

例 How is the weather in your hometown?=What’s the weather like in your hometown? 你的家乡天气怎么样?24. Thanks for... 多谢…

例 Thanks for helping me. You’re so kind. 谢谢你的帮助,你真是好心肠。

拓 Thanks to 意为“多亏,幸亏;由于”,有时也用作反语。

Many new sponsors he come forward thanks to this committee. 多亏这个会,才来了这么多新的赞助商。

Thanks to the bad weather, the match had been cancelled. 多亏这个倒霉天气,比赛取消了。

25. find it+形容词+for sb.+to do sth.例 He found it impossible to get there on time. 他发现不能准时到达那里。

根据find it+adj.+for sb.+to do sth. 结构可知为C。


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